Publication References and Resources

Useful References for Preparing Children to Testify in Court by Author

Avery, M. (1983). The child abuse witness: Potential for secondary victimization. Criminal Justice Journal, 7(1), 1-48.

Baker-Ward, L. & Ornstein, P.A. (2002). Cognitive underpinnings of children's testimony. In. H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies, & R. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice (pp 22-35). West Sussex: England: Wiley and Sons.

Baker-Ward, L., Ornstein, P.A. and Holden, D.J. (1984). The expression of memorization in early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37 (3), 555-575.

Bala, N. (1992). More sensitivity to child witnesses. Criminal Reports, 13(4), 270-273.

Bala, N. (1998). Recognizing that child witnesses are children. Criminal Reports, 11(5), 227-231.

Bala, N. & McCormack, H. (1994). Accommodating the criminal process to child witnesses: L (DO) and Levogiannis. Criminal Reports, 25 (4), 341-349.

BC Association of Specialized Victim Assistance and Counselling Programs (2006).
Easy reference guide to Bill C-2: Protection of children and other vulnerable witnesses. Vancouver, BC: author. Retrieved August 10, 2006 from http://www.endingviolence.org/publications/291/BillC2UsersGuide.

Berliner, L. & Barbieri, M.K. (1984). The testimony of the child victim of sexual assault. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 125-137.

Berliner, L. & Conte, J.R. (1995). The effects of disclosure and intervention on sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 371-84.

Bill C-2. Retrieved June 20, 2006. from:http://www.justice.gc.ca/en/news/nr/2005/doc_31584.html

Black, T., Trocmé, N., Fallon, B., MacLaurin, B., Roy, C., & Lajoie, J. (2005). Children's exposure to domestic violence in Canada. Centre of Excellence for Child Welfare. Retrieved June 8, 2006 from http://www.cecw.cepb.ca

Briere, J., Berliner, L., Bulkley, J., Jenny, C., & Reid, T. (1996). The APSAC (American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children) handbook on child maltreatment. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Carter, C., Bottoms, B., & Levine, M. (1996). Linguistic and socioemotional influence on the accuracy of children's reports. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 335-358. Cashmore, J. (2002). Innovative procedures for child witnesses. In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies, & R.H.C. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice. (pp.203-217). West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons.

Cashmore, J. (2002). Innovative procedures for child witnesses. In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies, & R.H.C. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice. (pp.203-217). West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons.

Ceci, S.J. & Bruck, M. (1995). Jeopardy in the courtroom. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Child Witness Project. (2002). Child witnesses in Canada: Where we've been, where we're going. London, ON, Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System: London Family Court Clinic.

City of Calgary (2004). 2004 City of Calgary Civic Census Calgary: Author.

Clarke, S. & Associates (1996). Working with Aboriginal child victim witnesses: Parts 2 & 3. Ministry of Attorney General, Province of British Columbia, Community Justice Branch.

Conte, J & Schuerman, J. (1987). Factors associated with an increased impact of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 201-211.

Copen, L.M. (2000). Preparing children for court: A practitioner's guide. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Dadds, M.; Smith, M.; Weber, Y.; & Robinson, A. (1991). An exploration of family and individual profiles following father daughter incest. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15 (4), 575-586.

Danet, B.. (1980). Language in the Courtroom. In H. Giles, P.Smith and P. Robinson (Eds.)

Social Psychology and Language: Proceedings of an International Conference. Oxford: Pergamon. 575-586.

Davies, G. & Noon, E. (1991). An evaluation of the live link for child witnesses. London Home Office Report.

Deblinger, E., McLeer, S.V. & Henry, D. (1990). Cognitive behavioural treatment for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress: Preliminary findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 747-752.

Department of Justice Canada: Family, Children and Youth Section (1999a). Child victims and the criminal justice system: A consultation paper. Ottawa, Canada

Department of Justice Canada: Family, Children and Youth Section (1999b). Child victims and the criminal justice system: Technical background paper. Ottawa, Canada.

Department of Justice Canada: Child Abuse Fact Sheet: Family Violence. Ottawa, Canada: Retrieved June 1, 2006 from http://canada.justice.gc.ca/en/pa/fm/childafs.html

Department of Justice Canada (2006b). Child sexual exploitation in Canada: Incidence, sentencing and recidivism. Retrieved June 20, 2006 from: http://www.justice.gc.ca/en/ps/rs/rep/justresearch/jr13/p5d.html

Department of Justice Canada (July 2005) Highlights of Bill C-2 amendments to protect children and other vulnerable persons. Retrieved June 20, 2006 from: http://www.justice.gc.ca/en/news/nr/2005/doc_31584.html

Dumoulin, A. & Flynn, R. (2005). Hope in young people in care: Role of active coping and other predictors. In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks, (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children. New York, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Dziech, B.W. & Schudson, C.B. (1989). On trial: America’s courts and their treatment of sexually abused children. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon.

Eaton, T.E., Ball, P.J., & O’Callaghan, M.G. (2001). Child witness and defendant credibility: Child evidence presentation mode and judicial instructions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1849-1858.

Easterbrook, J.A. (1959). The effect of emotion on the utilization and organization of behaviour. Psychological Review, 66, 183-201.

Edelstein, R.S., Goodman, G.S., Ghetti, S., Alexander, K.W, Quas, J.A., Redlich, A.D., Schaaf, J.M., & Cordon, I.M. (2002). Child witnesses’ experiences post-court: Effects of legal involvement. In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies, & R.H.C. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice (pp. 261-278). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Edleson, J. L. (1999). Children's witnessing of adult domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14 (8), 839-870.

Elliot, D.M. (1994). Impaired object relations in professional women molested as children. Psychotherapy, 31, 79-86.

Esam, B. (2002). Young witnesses: Still no justice. In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies & R.H.C. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice. West Sussex: England: John Wiley and Sons.

Faller, K.C. (2003). Understanding and assessing child sexual maltreatment (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fallon, B., Lajoie, J., Trocmé, N., Chaze, F., MacLaurin, B., & Black, T (2005). Sexual abuse of children in Canada. Centre of Excellence for Child Welfare. Retrieved June 20, 2006 from http://www.cecw.cepb.ca

Fischer, D.G., Stevens, G., & Berg, L. (1992). Review and monitoring of child sexual abuse cases in selected sites in Saskatchewan. Prepared for Justice Canada by Peat Marwick, Stevenson & Kellogg, Management Consultants.

Fivush, R. (2002). The development of autobiographical memory. In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies & R. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice (pp 55-68). West Sussex: England: Wiley and Sons.

Fivush, R., Peterson, C., & Schwarzmueller, A. (2002). Questions and answers: The credibility of child witnesses in the context of specific questioning techniques. In M.L. Eisen, J.A. Quas, & G.S. Goodan (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview (pp. 85-113). Mahwah. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Flin, R., Bull, R., Boon, J., & Knox, A. (1992). Children in the witness box. In H. Dent & R. Flin (Eds.), Children as witnesses (pp. 167-179). Chichester, U.K: Wiley.

Flin, R. (1990). Child witnesses in criminal courts. Children & Society. 4(3), 264-283.

Goodman, G.S., Quas, J. A., Bulkley, J., & Shapiro, C. (1999). Innovations for child witnesses: A national survey. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 5, 255-281.

Goodman, G.S., Taub, E.P., Jones, D.P.H., England, P., Port, L.K., Rudy, L., & Prado, L. (1992). Testifying in criminal court: Emotional effects of criminal court testimony on child sexual assault victims. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, 57(5), 1-161.

Harter, S., Alexander, P.C. & Neimeyer, R.A. (1988). Long term effects of incestuous child abuse in college women: Social adjustment, social cognition, and family characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 5-8.

Harvey, W. & Watson-Russell, A. (1988). So you have to go to court: A child's guide to testifying as a witness in child abuse cases (Second Ed.). Vancouver, BC: Butterworth.

Hoagwood, K., Stewart, J.M. (1989). Sexually abused children's perceptions of family functioning. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 6 (2), 139-149.

Hornick, J.P. & Bolitho, F. (1992). A review of the implementation of the child sexual abuse legislation in selected sites. Ottawa, Ontario: Minister of Justice & Attorney General of Canada: Government of Alberta by Communications and Consultation Branch, Department of Justice Canada.

Hoyano, L.C.H. (2000). Variations on a theme by Pigot: Special measures directions for Child Witnesses. Criminal Law Review, ISSN 0011-135X, 250-271.

Hutchinson, B. (2002). Court support for children and youth. Victim advocate training manual. Alberta Solicitor General, Victims Programs and Alberta Police Based Victim Service Association.

Lamb, M.E. (1994). The investigation of child sexual abuse: An interdisciplinary consensus statement. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18 (12), 1021-1028.

Landwirth, J. (1987). Children as witnesses in child sexual abuse trials. Pediatrics, 80, 585-589.

Legault, L. & Moffat, S. (2005). Positive life experiences that promote resilience in young people in care. In R. Flynn, P. Dudding, & J. Barber. (Eds.), Promoting resilience in child welfare. (pp. 173-190). Ottawa, Ontario: The University of Ottawa Press.

Lipovsky, J. & Stern, P. (1997). Preparing children for court: An interdisciplinary view. Child Maltreatment, 2(1), 150-163.

Lipovsky, J.A. (1994). The impact of court on children: Research findings and practical recommendations. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 238-257.

Lipovsky, J.A., Tidwell, R.P., Kilpatrick, D.G., Saunders, B.E., Crisp, J., & Dawson, V.L. (1991). Children as witnesses in criminal court: Examination of current practices. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.

London Child Witness Court Preparation Project (2002). Unpublished review and evaluation.

MacLaurin, B., Trocmé, N., Fallon, B., Chase, F., Black, T., & Lajoie, J. (2005). Physical abuse of children in Canada. Centre of Excellence for Child Welfare. Retrieved June 9, 2006 from http://www.cecw-cepb.ca.

Madonna, P.G., Van Scoyk, S. & Jones, D.P. (1991). Family interactions within incest and non-incest families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148. 46-49.

Mahoney, P. (1999). British Columbia: Study also seeks to improve experience of child witnesses. Viva Voce: A National Newsletter about Child Victims and Witnesses, 3, (1).

Marsil, D.F., Montoya, J., Ross, D., & Graham, L.P. (2002). Child witness policy: Law interfacing with Social Science. Law and Contemporary Problems, 65. 209.

Masten, A. (2005). Promoting resilience in development: A general framework for systems of care. In R. Flynn, P, Dudding, & J. Barber, J. (Eds.), Promoting Resilience in Child Welfare (pp. 3-17). Ottawa, Ontario: The University of Ottawa Press.

McGough, L. (1994). Fragile voices in the American legal system. Binghamton, New York: Vail-Ballou Press.

McGough, L. (2002). Good enough for government work: The constitutional duty to preserve forensic interviews of child victims. Law and Contemporary Problems, 65, 179.

Melton, G.B. (1984). Child witnesses and the first amendment: A psycholegal dilemma. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 109-123.

Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services Retrieved June 2006 from http://www.mpss.jus.gov.on.ca/english/corr_serv/comm_corr/probation.html

Morgan, J. & Williams, J. (1993). A role for a support person for child witnesses in criminal proceedings, British Journal of Social Work, 23(2), 113-21.

Morgan, J. and Zedner, L. (1992) Child Victims: Crime, Impact and Criminal Justice, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Moston, S. & Engelberg, T. (1992). Social support and the quality of children’s eyewitness testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 61-75.

Nelson, B.J. (1978). Setting the public agenda: The case of child abuse. In J.V. May & A.B. Wildavsky (Eds.), The policy cycle. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

NSW - New South Wales Children's Evidence Taskforce. Retrieved June 20, 2006. http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/PARLMENT/hansArt.nsf/V3Key/LC19971203041

Nova Scotia Department of Justice Victims' Services Division (2000). Child victims and the criminal justice system: Study report. Halifax, N.S.: Nova Scotia Department of Justice Victims' Services Division.

Olivier, L. (1996). “You’re Not Alone": A Child Witness Court Preparation Program. Calgary, AB: The Canadian Society for the Investigation of Child Abuse.

Ornstein, P.A., Naus, M.J. & Liberty, C. (1975). Rehearsal and organizational processes in children's memory. Child Development, 46, 818-830.

Perry, N.W. & Wrightsman, L.S. (1991). The child witness. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Perry, N. W., McAuliff, B. D., Tam, P., Claycomb, L., Dostal, C., & Flanagan, C. (1995). When lawyers question children: Is justice served? Law and Human Behavior, 19, 609-629.

Peters, D.P. (1991). The influence of stress and arousal on the child witness. In John Doris (Ed) The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections (pp. 60-75).

Plotnikoff, J. & Woolfson, R. (2002). What do judges know about young witnesses? In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies, & R.H.C. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice. (pp.203-217). West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons.

Pressley, M. & Levin, J.R. (1977). Developmental differences in subjects associate learning strategies and performance: Assessing a hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24, 431-439.

Pynoos, R.S. & Eth, S. (1984). The child as witness to homicide. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 87-108.

Quas, J.A., Redich, A.D., Goodman, G.S., Ghetti, S. & Alexander, K.W. (!999). Long term consequences on child abuse victims of testifying in criminal court: Mental health revictimization and delinquency. Presented at the Biennial Conference of the Society for Research in Child Development. Albuquerque, NM.

Rauf, M.N. (1993). Questioning the new orthodoxy of the proper approach to child witnesses. Criminal Reports, 17 C.R. (4th). 303-313.

Revelle, G.L.., Wellman, H.M. & Karabenick, J.D. (1985). Comprehension Monitoring in preschool children. Child Development, 56, 654-663.

Runyan, D.K., Everson, M.D. Edelsohn, G.A., Hunter, W.M. & Coulter, M.L. (1988). Impact of legal intervention on sexually abused children. Journal of Pediatrics, 113, 647-653.

Sas, L. (1999). I'm doing my job in court, are you? London, ON: London Family Court Clinic.

Sas, L.D. & Cunningham, A. (1995). Tipping the balance to tell the secret: Public discovery of child sexual abuse. London, ON: London Family Court Clinic.

Sas, L, Hurley, P. Austin, G., & Wolfe, D. (1991). Reducing the system-induced trauma for child sexual abuse victims through court preparation, assessment and follow-up. (Project #4555-1-125) Final report to the National Welfare Grants Division, Health and Welfare Canada, London, Ontario.

Sas, L.D, Hurley, P., Hatch, A. Malla S., & Dick, T. (1993). Three years after the verdict: A longitudinal study of the social and psychological adjustment of child witnesses referred to the child witness project. London, Ontario: Child Witness Project, London Family Court Clinic.

Saywitz, K. (2002). Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice. In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies & R. Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice (pp.3-17). West Sussex, England: Wiley and Sons.

Saywitz, K. (1989) Children’s Concepts of the Legal System: “Court is a place to play basketball,” in S.J. Ceci ., D.F. Ross & M.G. Toglia (Eds.), Perspectives on Children’s Testimony (pp 149-151). Springer-Verlag.

Saywitz, K. (1995). Memory and testimony in the child witness. In M. Zaragoza, J. Graham, G. Hall, R. Hirschman, Y. Ben-Porath (Eds.), Memory and Testimony in the Child Witness (pp. 113-140). London: Sage Publications.

Saywitz, K.J., & Goodman, G.S. (1996). Interviewing children in and out of court: Current research and practice implications. In J. Briere, L. Berliner, J.A. Bulkley, C. Jenny, & T. Reid (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (pp.217-318), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Saywitz, K.J. & Lyon, T.D. (2002). Coming to grips with children's suggestibility. In M.L. Eeisen, JA. Quas, & G.S. Goodan (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview (pp. 85-113). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Saywitz, K. J. & Snyder, L. (1993). Improving children's memory with preparation. In G. Goodman & B. Bottoms (Eds.), Child victims, child witnesses (pp. 117-146). New York: Guilford Press.

Schetky, D.H. & Green, A.T. (1988). Child sexual abuse: A handbook for health care and legal professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Sirles, E. & Franke, P. (1989). Factors influencing mother’s reactions to intrafamilial sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 131-139.

Snyder, C., Rand, K. & Sigmund, D. (2002). Hope theory: A member of the positive psychology family. In C.D. Snyder & S.J. Lopez, (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp. 257-276). New York, New York: Oxford University Press.

Sorensen, T. & Snow, B. (1991). How children tell: The process of disclosure of child sexual abuse. Child Welfare, 70, 3-15.

Stern, P. (1993). Preparing a child for court. Violence Update, 4, 5-11

Stroud, D., Martens, S.L. & Barker, J. (2000). Criminal investigation of child sexual abuse: A comparison of cases referred to the prosecutor to those not referred. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24, 689-700.

Terr, L.C. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 10-20.

Trocmé, N., Fallon, B., MacLaurin, B., Daciuk, J., Felstiner, C., Black, T., Tonmyr, L., Blackstock, C., Barter, K., Turcotte, D., Cloutier, R., (2005). Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect - 2003, Major Findings. Minister of Public Works, and Government Services Canada. Retrieved June 20, 2006 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/familyviolence/pdfs/childabuse_final_e.pdf.

Ursel, J. & Gorkoff, K. (2001). Court processing of child sexual abuse cases: The Winnipeg Family Violence Court experience. In D. Hiebert-Murphy, & L. Burnside (Eds.), Pieces of a puzzle: Perspectives on child sexual abuse (pp. 79-94). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing and RESOLVE.

Van Tongeren Harvey, W. & Dauns, P.E. (2001). Sexual offences against children and the criminal process. Toronto: Butterworths.

Wade, A. (2002). New measures and new challenges: Children’s experience of the court process. In H.L. Westcott, G.M. Davies, & R.H.C Bull (Eds.), Children’s testimony: A handbook of psychological research and forensic practice (pp. 219-232). West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons.

Walker, A.G. (1999). Children in the courts: When language gets in the way. Trial, 35 (1).

Weiss, E.H. & Berg, R.F. (1982). Child victims of sexual assault: Impact of court procedures. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21(5) 513-518.

Wheatcroft, J.M., Wagstaff, G.F. & Kebbell, M.R. (2004). The influence of courtroom questioning style on actual and perceived eyewitness confidence and accuracy. Legal and Criminal Psychology, 9, 83-101.

Whitcomb, D., Goodman, G.S., Runyan, D., & Hoak, S. (1994). The emotional effects of testifying on sexually abused children.. National Institute of Justice: Research in Brief. Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice.

Whitcomb, D., Shapiro, E.R., & Stellwagen, L.D. (1985). When the victim is a child: Issues for judges and prosecutors. Washington, D.C: National Institute of Justice (Contract), #J-LEAA-011-81).
Wright, M.O.D., & Masten, A. S. (2005). Resilience processes in development: Fostering positive adaptation in the context of adversity. In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children. (pp. 3-17). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.